Sunday, March 29, 2009

Maps from the American Revolution

Our Social Studies teachers have received two sessions of training on use of primary resource materials available digitally from ‘trusted’ resources, such as the Library of Congress.

I was checking a list of blogs that I review every evening, and J.L. Bell’s Boston 1775 blog site (March 20, 1009 entry) provided the link to the Library of Congress page discussed below. Bell produces articles – pretty much on a daily basis – investigating the history of Boston during the Revolutionary Era – with a lot of primary documents, quotes, and sites mentioned in the articles. It helps that he’s a highly qualified and informative writer and presenter who knows and loves the history of the area and the era.

A resource our teachers may want to bookmark is: The American Revolution and Its Era: Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789. This Library of Congress resource provides a number of maps that can be used in the classroom as part of student research, a PowerPoint lesson, personal knowledge, or other aspects of classroom instruction. It does take a while to go through the large selection of maps available, but it could be well worth the time to visit the site.

The use of primary resources – whether they are letters, quotes, documents, pictures, or maps – can provide a valuable addition to the Social Studies classroom. For more information on the training we held – as well as notes from that training – visit our Social Studies Website.
Essential Question: What benefits can come from the study of original maps from a historic era?
Photo Source:

Map of North America, 1771: Library of Congress, DIGITAL ID g3300 ar012001

Friday, March 27, 2009

FFQF: Decline of the Press

Favorite Founding Father's Quote Day

This week's contribution to Founding Father's Quote Friday:

Fisher Ames (1758 – 1808) was an influential Federalist who served in Congress from 1789 – 1797, and was a noted orator who helped gain support for the new Constitution in his home state of Massachusetts through his acceptance of the Bill of Rights.

“We are, heart and soul, friends to the freedom of the press. It is however, the prostituted companion of liberty, and somehow or other, we know not how, its efficient auxiliary. It follows the substance like its shade; but while a man walks erect, he may observe that his shadow is almost always in the dirt. It corrupts, it deceives, it inflames. It strips virtue of her honors, and lends to faction its wildfire and its poisoned arms, and in the end is its own enemy and the usurper's ally, It would be easy to enlarge on its evils. They are in England, they are here, they are everywhere. It is a precious pest, and a necessary mischief, and there would be no liberty without it.” - Fisher Ames, Review of the Pamphlet on the State of the British Constitution, 1807.
As vexing as they may be, the printed newspapers are failing in the United States – not so much in news content as in closing their doors or turning to on-line publication. What effect will this have on the citizens of the United States?

A March 2009 Princeton University study concluded after the Cincinnati Post folded in 2007, that “the next year, fewer candidates ran for municipal office in the suburbs most reliant on the Post, incumbents became more likely to win re-election, and voter turnout fell….” The study went on to say that their research “demonstrated that newspapers – even underdogs such as the Post, which had a circulation of just 27,000 when it closed – can have a substantial and measurable impact on public life.”

USA Today (March 19, 2009) commented: “Sometime soon, millions of people may find themselves unwittingly involved in a test that could profoundly change their daily routines, local economies and civic lives. They'll have to figure out how to keep up with City Hall, their neighborhoods and their kids' schools — as well as store openings, new products and sales — without a 170-year-old staple of daily life: a local newspaper.”

Newspapers give one time to reflect on the news, not to just react to it; time to consider the source of information, not lured into a commercial or the next 30 second news blurb as often happens on the visual media; something to come back to, not to be forgotten. They also give the local communities local news.

Not to mention the effect of the loss of newspapers on our NIE (Newspapers In Education) program.

There is even a website - with the slogan "Don't just read the news - predict it" that allows viewers to predict which newspaper will fold next.

I think Ames was accurate when he said "It is a precious pest, and a necessary mischief, and there would be no liberty without it.”

Essential Question: Do newspapers have the significance to our students that we would desire in the process of encouraging enlightened and concerned citizens?

Founding Fathers Quote Friday is hosted by Meet the Founding Fathers

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Wikis in Social Studies

I am quickly arriving at the firm belief that there is definate spot for the use of wikis in the Social Studies classroom.

What is a wiki? Well, it’s not a 6’11” native from the planet Kashyyyk that is distrustful of strangers, but loyal to friends. Of course, they (wookies) could be useful in the classroom as well - as long as they were a friend of yours.

In plain English, a wiki is a means of communication between individuals in an editable web format.


Imagine this – using Geography for an example. You – as the person in charge of the wiki (called an organizer) go to and create an educational wiki. You register your students on that wiki. Your assignment to the students: create a country report, providing whatever guidelines and choice of countries you currently use. Each child can create a “page” on the wiki with the name of their country. Then, following the format you provide for the report, they can incorporate text, images, video, sound media (how about the national anthem of the country?). If they work in groups – of say two or three – on a specific country, they can add to/edit/delete whatever is on the page. You could have students from different classes working together. They could communicate through the web (it has email capabilities), and you can communicate with all of the wiki members (students)

The reports would be there for all students to see and learn by – perhaps to fill in a “10 things I didn’t know” handout on someone else’s report OR even make a (gasp) blog entry – but blogs are another story for another time.

You, as organizer, can track any edits made, and who made them – which should limit horseplay on the project.

It’s a project that the students would enjoy, would work at, and would be successful at. The biggest problem I see is access to computers for children who do not have a computer at home. But, problems are made to be overcome, and the wiki is a tool that I believe has a place in our scheme of things in the Social Studies classroom.

Our Social Studies webpage has a Web 2.0 link that guides you to a page with some resources on wikis – all the way from what they are to how you use them, to examples. Check it out and think of the possibilities.

Essential Question: What is the role of technology in today’s classroom?

Sunday, March 22, 2009

Review: Samuel Adams A Life

When most people today think of Sam Adams, they think of a beer. Even history teachers probably aren’t giving enough coverage to Adams – he’s a footnote in the book, if there at all.

Yet, he was the heart of the origin of the American Revolution. The same words he used in Massachusetts in 1770 – “pursuit of life, liberty, and property” – were used by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence in 1776. His advocating of basic rights in the Massachusetts constitutional convention were echoed – in the Bill of Rights. He was on the ‘arrest or kill’ list of the Crown in 1774 and beyond. Who were the redcoats after when they marched on Lexington and Concord? The man that they had been stopping and questioning people about throughout Massachusetts – Sam Adams.

Adams wrote, spoke, and led the way toward independence.

While many biographies are dealing with cousin John Adams, Jefferson, Lincoln, Washington – Sam Adams has been sorely overlooked, and relegated to the dust-bin of history, a name scarcely remembered.

Ira Stoll’s biography Samuel Adams: A Life corrects that with a great portrayal of a drama-filled life – the stuff that movies could be made of. The influences on Adams’ life – his family, his religion, his passion for freedom from the British – are all well documented and written. The book is engaging and portrays the life of the time.

While colonial history has not been my strongest area of interest, when I saw the book I knew it had to be on my to-read list. I am glad it made it. The best part: our county library system has a copy, which is where I got my copy from.

If you have an opportunity to read the book, by all means do so knowing that it is… revolutionary!

Some reviews on the book:

Boston Globe
Barnes and Noble Review
New York Post
The Spiked Review of Books

Essential Question: How can we best encourage the students to discover the motivations and beliefs of the Founding Fathers?

Friday, March 20, 2009

FFQF: Founding Fathers Quote Friday

Favorite Founding Father's Quote Day

FFQF is the brain child of Hercules Mulligan, the owner of Meet the Founding Fathers, where he invites others to participate in exploring a quote (of their choice) by a Founding Father. FFQF stands for Founding Fathers' Quote Friday.
While writing this week’s entry for my other blog site, Great Lives – which celebrates the birthdays of historical figures with a relatively short biography of the individual - I found a quote by George Clymer that is the contribution to the FFQF today.

Clymer was the ‘behind the scenes’ man during his service in the Continental Congress, serving on several crucial committees concerned with the war effort. He didn’t seek the limelight. He sought to provide provisions, arms, and assistance to the country in its War for Independence. He was one of the early colonials who spoke out in favor of Independence before the idea became popular, was republican (philosophy, not party) in his ideals, and was a strong supporter of the common man. He put action behind his words – converting his specie (British pounds, gold, silver, etc.) in to the new Continental currency. His home was severely damaged by the British during a raid that was specifically aimed at trying to capture him. He signed both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution – one of only eight men to do so.

His contemporary, Benjamin Franklin, said of him that he had the “coolest, clearest head, the best heart, and the exactest morals of almost any man I ever met with.”

Clymer strongly backed the concept of ‘freedom of the press’. However, he recognized that with freedom comes responsibility. He once said:

“A printer publishes a lie: for which he ought to stand in the pillory, for the people believe in and act upon it.”
I don’t believe that we ‘act’ on the news… we ‘react’ to it. We hear something, or read something that influences our thoughts and therefore our attitude and actions. By publishing – or not publishing – information (for instance on candidates in a political election) the reading and viewing public can be swayed in their thoughts and their votes.

Some of the errors are accidental. We have all read the typographical errors that occur with often humorous results. Other errors are due to the race in today’s ‘instant’ world to get the news out first, and henceforth the credit for getting the news out first – and having the news wrong in the process.

But it seems that some errors – whether of commission or omission – are purposeful, deliberately misleading the public into the view that the particular reporter and/or news organization has. We have all talked about the ‘slant’ that the news media has. “Fair and Balanced” news is right of center – so does that mean that ‘unfair and unbalanced’ news is left of center? Either way – the news is altered to present a biased view.

Biased viewpoints are a part of human nature, and have been part of the American press since it’s creation. I believe that most people in today’s world are – to an extent - aware of biased presentation. However, once the bias slips into outright lies, we find that there seldom is any real punishment. We quickly forget – or don’t explore the issue in the first place. Analyzing what we hear and see, balancing it with our own set of biases, and digging for the perceived ‘truth’ is often task that no one has the time – or takes the time – for.

We need to live up to our responsibility to monitor the ‘free press’ by holding it to a standard of truth in a consistent manner. Those who say that ‘truth is relative’ do not acknowledge that there is universal truth – it’s just that people prefer to ignore that truth to create their own.

There have been cases where the action of one person (assisted, I’m sure, by a battery of lawyers) have challenged an outright lie by the press, and won. A case with Carol Burnett comes to mind. But these cases are rare. We most often accept – then forget – what’s said and who said it.

We are seeing all too often “we regret the error” messages in our press. Errors are acceptable. The occasional blatant lie is not.

Essential Question: How can we make our students aware of the concept – and responsibilities – of the free press, and of the citizen’s responsibilities to not only protect and guard it, but to hold it to a standard of honest reporting?

Monday, March 16, 2009

Nature Coast Civil War Education Day

Friday, March 13th, was ‘education day’ for the Nature Coast Civil War Reenactment. A number of students from several of our district schools were able to attend this event – learning not only about the weapons, tactics, and strategy of the Civil War, but also about life one hundred and forty five years ago.

The presenters – some of whom were district teachers – talked to the students in a living history program that covered some sixteen different stations, ranging from firing a mortar and an artillery piece, to learning how food was cooked and home remedies. I have been a student of the Civil War for years – and I was still learning from these folks.

The students – Elementary through High School – were great, and busily filling out study guides provided by the Reenactment Education Committee while listening to the presenters. Of course – as usual – the favorite part of the day was the food and the visit to the sutler’s tents.

A thank you to the schools that sent their students, and the teachers and parents who chaperoned them – and especially to the Reenactment Education Committee for providing not only the opportunity – but also the supportive materials and well-informed living history presenters.

The following are a selection if images taken during the day. Unfortunately, I had to leave before the day was over – so the entire day is not covered in photos here.

Essential question: What are the benefits to using living history opportunities with our students?

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Citrus County Fair

61 years ago the Citrus County Fair moved to the Inverness fairgrounds.

Six weeks ago we formed a committee of myself, Gail Grimm, Kathy Androski, Heather Bishop, Brenden Bonomo, Mike Breder, Linda Wiestner, and Helen Pannelli, to design the fair booth for the Citrus County School Board's exhibit.

We wanted to make it an open, welcoming exhibit, using technology as well as images. An Imagination Library video will be displayed, as well as a computer station that will be available for parents to see and use the Fast Math program that our elementary kids use.

The team designed the booth, and last Saturday afternoon those who could met at the fairground put it together.

Stop by the Fair this week and check out the exhibit. We're already making plans for next year - when we'll include an exhibit for the history of Citrus County schools. If any of our district Social Studies teachers are interested in joining us and contributing their expertise in the school history portion, let me know.

Below are some of the images from Saturday.

We met at 2:30, unloaded my pickup truck, moved tables, and put on the table cloths. THEN I remembered to take a beginning picture.

Committee members and their families worked until 4:30 implementing the design, putting up the display, cleaning up, and making plans for next year.

The final product:

A hearty thanks to the committee for their plans, efforts, and contributions.

Friday, March 13, 2009

FFQF: Founding Fathers Quote Friday

Favorite Founding Father's Quote Day

Hercules Mulligan – such a cool moniker – has a blog that I truly enjoy every Friday called Meet the Founding Fathers. He has interesting reading on that site, and invites folks to participate in a “Founding Fathers Quote Friday” on their blogs. I decided – as I have had a resurrection of interest in our colonial/revolutionary history recently - to try one, and will participate as the MEET (mood, energy, enthusiasm, time) permits.

I have just finished a book on Samuel Adams titled Samuel Adams: A Life, by Ira Stoll, and will be posting a review of it before long on this blog site. In the chapter dealing with the Boston Tea Party there was a correlation of events that seems to relate to our present time: bail outs.

The British Parliament debated how to save the East India Company, which was some five million pounds in debt. The solution was one the Parliament thought was a win-win situation for the colonies and the company: giving the East India Company a monopoly on the sale of tea in the colonies – with only the Townsend tax being paid. All other royal taxes would be waived. The colonies got cheaper tea; the East India Company had sole possession of a market, which would help it to sell its surplus of tea.

However, the Tea Act simply provided fuel for the fire of liberty in the colonies – if handled by the right person. That person was Samuel Adams. He would stir the fires against taxation and the dumping of unwanted tea on shores of America. Others would join in – often led by the wealthy merchants – such as John Hancock - who saw the economic downside of the Tea Act.

As a result of the Tea Act, Samuel Adams looked ahead at what the potential future held and stated:

“If we persevere in asserting our rights, the time must come, probably a time of
war, when our just claims must be attended to & our complaints
regarded.” Letter to Joseph Hawley, October 13, 1773.
The tea arrived in December 1773 – eventually being tossed over the side of the ships carrying it by the citizens of Boston.

Bailouts don’t always work the way they should – and often have unforeseen consequences. I can’t help but wonder how the most recent 800 billion dollar (that’s $800,000,000,000.00) ‘stimulus package’ will affect our country economically, socially, and politically, in the long run.
Probably not in the way it was advertised or intended.

Essential Question: How can the use of quotations by the founding fathers be used to enhance the understanding of our students in the area of American liberties and Constitutional rights?


Adams Portrait
Adams Signature

Monday, March 9, 2009

Florida Legislative Session and Will Rogers Quotes

As you know, the Florida Legislative Session for 2009 is underway. Some of the legislation will deal with the Social Studies.

Some proposed bills include:

-House bill 0013 and Senate bill 2174 would add Social Studies to the FCAT.
-House bill 1231 and Senate bill 2608 would create an appeals process for students marked for grade level retention. It would add history, civics, geography, arts, music, and physical education to the subjects required by statute to be considered in decisions about grade level promotion. Current law only requires consideration of reading, writing, science, and mathematics.
-House bill 1293 and Senate bill 2654 would require each high school to offer a minimum number of AP, IB or dual enrollment courses.

You can follow the progress of the bills by checking in at the Florida Senate homepage and typing in the bill number, or the Florida House homepage. More may be coming.

Of course, what is a legislative session without remembering Will Rogers – humorist, writer, movie star, and radio personality of the early 20th century. Research indicates that humor can get us through tough times - and with the budget shortfalls and economic situation, times are tough! So, here are 25 quotes from Will Rogers about our national Congress which could apply to our state legislature...

“A fool and his money are soon elected.”

“Remember, write to your Congressman. Even if he can’t read, write to him.”

“About all I can say for the United States Senate is that it opens with a prayer and closes with an investigation.”

“Instead of giving money to found colleges to promote learning, why don't they pass a constitutional amendment prohibiting anybody from learning anything? If it works as good as the Prohibition one did, why, in five years we would have the smartest race of people on earth.”

“Alexander Hamilton started the U.S. Treasury with nothing, and that was the closest our country has ever been to being even.”

“It takes nerve to be a Democrat, but it takes money to be a Republican.”

“Ancient Rome declined because it had a Senate, now what's going to happen to us with both a House and a Senate?”

“A flock of Democrats will replace a mess of Republicans. It won’t mean a thing. They will go in like all the rest of ’em. Go in on promises and come out on alibis.”

“Anything important is never left to the vote of the people. We only get to vote on some man; we never get to vote on what he is to do.”

“Democrats never agree on anything, that's why they're Democrats. If they agreed with each other, they would be Republicans.”

“Everything is changing. People are taking their comedians seriously and the politicians as a joke.”

“I bet after seeing us, George Washington would sue us for calling him "father."”

“I'm not a member of any organized political party, I'm a Democrat!”

“Ain’t it funny how many hundreds of thousands of soldiers we can recruit with nerve. But we can’t find one politician in a million with backbone.”

“If I studied all my life, I couldn't think up half the number of funny things passed in one session of congress.”

“If you ever injected truth into politics you have no politics.”

“It's a good thing we don't get all the government we pay for.”

“Last year we said, 'Things can't go on like this', and they didn't, they got worse.”

“The more you observe politics, the more you've got to admit that each party is worse than the other.”

“This country has come to feel the same when Congress is in session as when the baby gets hold of a hammer.”

“There's no trick to being a humorist when you have the whole government working for you.”

“There ought to be one day - just one - when there is open season on senators.”

“You know how Congress is. They’ll vote for anything if the thing they vote for will turn around and vote for them.”

“Why sleep at home when you can sleep in Congress?”
“Papers say: “Congress is deadlocked and can’t act.” I think that is the greatest blessing that could befall this country.”

Saturday, March 7, 2009

Site Review: Maps of War

Those of you who know me – or read this blog occasionally – should be aware by now that I have long seen and used the potential of the Internet in the classroom. I often wish that the technology available now (it has changed a lot in the seven years since I left the classroom) had been available when I was actively teaching. I believe that there is so much that can be done through using the Web. I now have over 2000 links on the “Social Studies Resource Websites” link on my Social Studies homepage.

That said, it is time to mention Maps of War, which is one of those links.

This is a really interesting website that looks at various aspects of history through the use of a timeline and a map… all in under two minutes of imaging! The material can be used as an introduction or a summary to a topic, or a number of other ways only limited by your imagination.

Some of the maps with a brief description from the site:

  • The History of Religion (How has the geography of religion evolved over the centuries, and where has it sparked wars?)

  • The March of Democracy (Where has democracy dominated and where has it retreated?)

  • Imperial History of the Middle East (Who has controlled the Middle East over the course of history?)

Maps of War also links to other sites with animated maps, such as The Western Front 1914-1918 by the BBC, and both the European and Pacific battles of World War II.

All in all, an interesting site to look at and see if and how you could use it in class.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Local History/Local Color

With Florida Heritage Month just around the corner (March 15 – April 15), it seems an appropriate time to bring up the role of local history in the classroom.

Local history can be fun, intriguing, and motivating for our students. One of the secrets, however, is to include local color in the local history.

For example: History: In 1891 a local election was held to determine the permanent location of the Citrus County seat. As a result of that election, the county seat was moved from the Mannfield to Inverness.

Sort of dry, not really inspiring. But it is factual. What would some local color and story telling do for this historic event?

BACKGROUND to the story:

When Citrus County was established in 1887, the state Legislature chose Mannfield to be the temporary county seat for two years or, as the bill read, until “removed by a vote of the registered voters of the county”.

Mannfield, located near the center of the county, south of what is today Lecanto, felt secure in its position as the county seat. It had a growing and industrious population of 250, making it the county’s largest town. It was at the geographic center of the county, and other sites for the county seat were limited.

There was a real possibility of a railroad line running through Mannfield, depended upon that town becoming the permanent political center of the new county. Finally, as the local newspaper, the Citrus County Star stated, by the time an election was held, “the county will have to become accustomed to it, as the county seat of business.”

However, when the election was held, the votes were not as expected.


There were several elections held in 1889 and 1890, each failing to pick a clear-cut winner for the permanent county seat because of the lack of a majority vote for one location. Powerful factions had developed in a one-party county. Each faction sought to sway the votes of the 2,394 people who resided in Citrus County.

One faction centered around State Senator Austin S. Mann, an early promoter of Citrus County, and a man instrumental in the foundation of Citrus as a separate county. Senator Mann had extensive property interests in the county, including a large orange grove near Crystal River.

Mann was influential with the railroad interests of the state and had promoted a railroad line to Mannfield, a city named in his honor.

The other major faction was centered in a city that had recently changed its name from Tompkinsville to Inverness. The local business leaders of the Inverness area were determined to see their city grow and prosper and to do so they promoted the city as the future county seat.

By 1891, Mannfield was forced to take the threat of Inverness seriously. Phosphate had been discovered in the eastern portion of the county and the railroad, which had been laying track toward Mannfield, changed its course near Holder. The tracks were now pointing toward Inverness. Inverness also had a more organized leadership, led by businessmen like Frank Dampier. Jim Priest, the county’s sheriff, became the official spokesman for the Inverness faction.

Early politics in Citrus County were a rough and tumble affair. Verbal blasts, political wrangling, and occasional fistfights marked the election in 1891. The future of two cities was at stake. The election for a county seat and courthouse site was held with 526 men voting.

Inverness received 267 votes; Mannfield received 258; and Gulf Junction received one vote.

Immediately, charges and countercharges of ballot stuffing arose, and no one would admit that the election was lost. The controversy over the close election continued as Mannfield vowed to keep the courthouse while Inverness claimed the county seat rights.

The election for the county seat and the site of the courthouse was over, but the battle had just begun.


The leaders of Mannfield decided to try to retain the courthouse by getting an injunction forbidding Inverness from taking the county records.

They hired an attorney named Colonel Dupre to get the injunction.

The nearest judge was holding court at Dade City. The attorney packed his mule and rode to Dade City over the sand trails that made up the highways of the region.

He arrived about 4 p.m., after court had recessed and the judge was boarding a train that was bound for Tampa. The attorney made it to the train, but before he could get the injunction, the train left the station on its way to Tampa.

The case was argued as the train jolted down the tracks to Tampa. The judge listened to the petition. There was disagreement as to his decision, with some historians stating that the petition was not granted, with others saying that it was. Either way, by the time the train reached Tampa it was too late to return, so the lawyer stayed overnight.

The Inverness faction heard of the attempt to get the injunction. They held a meeting and decided to take action before an injunction could be issued.

Two teams of mules and wagons were gathered and – a night descended on Citrus County – they were in Mannfield. Court records, furniture, and other government equipment were loaded from the Gaffney House, site of the Mannfield courthouse, onto the wagons.

They also loaded Captain W. C. Zimmerman, the clerk of the circuit court, onto a wagon.

Zimmerman, refusing to go along with anything that was irregular, remained in his official chair and at his official desk during the proceedings. Sheriff Priest asked the attorneys for Inverness what to do about Zimmerman.

“By God, move him!” was the reply. The sheriff ordered two men to pick up Zimmerman in his chair and place him on one of the wagons.

Zimmerman is said to have sat in his chair the entire trip.

Men and boys helped move the loaded wagons by pushing them up the hills between Mannfield and Inverness, then riding down the hill as the mules hauling the wagons broke into a gallop.

By 8 a.m. the next day the records and furniture had been unloaded into the offices of the rented building that was Inverness’ temporary courthouse.

Capt. Zimmerman was moved into his new office. He and his chair were carefully placed behind his desk by the tired workers, and once this was done, Zimmerman walked to the door of the new courthouse and declared it open for business.

The 'pro-injunction' historians relate this story: About this time the lawyer for Mannfield began his return train ride from Tampa. He picked up his mule in Dade City and rode furiously back to Mannfield, injunction in hand.

As he came within sight of the Mannfield courthouse, his mule stumbled, throwing the lawyer onto the sandy road. The lawyer got up and ran to the courthouse, only to find it empty.

Because of ‘the night they stole the courthouse’, Inverness became the official county seat in 1891.


This story leaves room for additional historical research – which interested students might do – and it weave in a variety of story telling techniques. It also allows for analysis, such as a map of the era showing towns and railroads; research into primary and secondary resources; finding what happened to Mannfield; photo interpretation; and a host of other strategies. While it does take more time to present than the simple two sentence factual statement, it is something the students are far more likely to remember – and what is the purpose of educating them if not that?

A special thanks to Laurie Diestler, Historical Resources Coordinator, Clerk of the Circuit Court, Citrus County for assistance in gathering photo resources.

Essential Question: How can we effectively incorporate local history into our various Social Studies courses in order to acclimate our students to the history of the area they are currently living in?
Photo Resources:

1890 George Cram Co. Citrus County Map: Exploring Florida, USF
Senator Austin S. Mann: Citrus County Historical Society
Mannfield Court House: Citrus County Historical Society
Citrus County 1890 Rand McNally Map: Exploring Florida, USF